APPENDIX VII. Architectural and ecclesiastical terms used in dialling
|The following terms, taken from the field of architecture (Fleming et al) have been adapted to describe architectural features found in dialling. Parts of a church are also included as they are frequently used to describe the location of a dial.
Figure 6. Component parts of a pedestal
aisle: the part(s) of a church running alongside the central nave. There is often a north and a south aisle, and they are usually of lesser height than the nave.
baluster: an architectural term for the short pillars which form the supports for a balustrade. The term can be used in dialling to describe the common variety of shaft for apedestal which is bulbous towards the bottom and rises to a neck of smaller diameter, similar to that shown in Figure 6.
banded shaft: (or blocked shaft) a column broken by plain or rusticated blocks of stone.
capital: the head or crowning feature of a column. Many stylised forms exist and have special names.
Figure7. A stiff leaf capital
caryatid: strictly, a sculptured female figure used as a column to support a dial, etc. It can be used more loosely for other human figures, e.g. Atlantes (male caryatids), Herms(three-quarter-length figures), and Terms (tapering columns merging at the top into human, animal or mythical figures).
chamfer: the surface made when the sharp edge (arris) of a stone block is cut away, usually at an angle of 45º to the other two surfaces. It is called a hollow chamfer when the surface is made concave.
column: in classical architecture, it is a part of an Order, comprising the capital, shaft and base and is circular or square in cross-section.. This definition can also be adopted for dialling purposes.
compound column: a column comprising a number of merged or semi-merged shafts.
crown: a decoration over the top of a vertical dial as an alternative to a pediment.
Figure 8. Ball and Eagle finials
flute: a semicircular vertical groove in a pillar.
foliated: carved with a leaf ornament.
Figure 9. Ogee and reverse-ogee mouldings
obelisk: a tall tapering shaft of stone, usually monolithic with a square or rectangular section ending with a pyramidal apex. Prominent in Ancient Egypt as a solar symbol, often at the entrance to tombs or as a cult object in shrines to the sun.
Order: in classical architecture, a term used to describe a column with its base, shaft, capital and entablature, designed in one of a number of accepted modes, for example Doric or Ionic. The component description of these Orders have been adapted for dialling purposes.
pedestal: the term adopted by diallists to describe the whole structure, usually of stone, used to support a dial (most usually horizontal). See Figure 6.
pediment: a low-pitched gable, sometimes seen over the top of vertical dials. It may be open at the apex, in which case it is termed a broken-apex ~ or sometimes just a broken pediment. Versions with curved segments are called swan-neck ~.
Figure 10. Swan and broken pediments
pillar: similar to the classical column, but need not have the simple circular or square cross section.
spandrel: an architectural term for the space between the shoulder of an arch and the surrounding rectangular brickwork. In dialling, the term can be used to describe the corner areas of a square dial plate with a circular chapter ring.